Use of steroid for asthma

If you have a serious asthma attack (exacerbation), your doctor may prescribe a short course of oral c orticosteroids. When used orally for less than two weeks, the side effects of corticosteroids are less likely, but when used for many months, they can have a serious and permanent effect. After the severe symptoms of your asthma attack have been successfully treated and controlled, your doctor will work with you to minimize your need for prednisone in the future. Faithfully taking an inhaled corticosteroid every day is the most commonly successful method to do this.

Nebulisers are machines that turn the liquid form of your short-acting bronchodilator medicines into a fine mist, like an aerosol. You breathe this in with a face mask or a mouthpiece. Nebulisers are no more effective than normal inhalers. However, they are extremely useful in people who are very tired (fatigued) with their breathing, or in people who are very breathless. Nebulisers are used mainly in hospital for severe attacks of asthma when large doses of inhaled medicines are needed. They are used less commonly than in the past, as modern spacer devices are usually just as good as nebulisers for giving large doses of inhaled medicines. You do not need any co-ordination to use a nebuliser - you just breathe in and out, and you will breathe in the medicine.

Corticosteroids have been used as drug treatment for some time. Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a complicated 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile . [43] The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams . His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception . [44] In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone. [45] The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field. [46] The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.

We identified 268 and 97 breakthrough cases among 80 584 and 8181 children vaccinated against varicella at HMOs A and B, respectively. Varicella breakthrough was not associated with asthma, inhaled steroids prescribed at any time, and oral steroids prescribed before vaccination. An increased risk of varicella breakthrough was found in the 3 months immediately after prescription for oral steroids at HMO A (adjusted relative risk [aRR]: ; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -) and HMO B (aRR: ; 95% CI: -), when varicella vaccine was given before 15 months of age at HMO A (aRR: ; 95% CI: -), and when varicella vaccination followed MMR vaccine within 28 days at HMO A (aRR: ; 95% CI: -).

Use of steroid for asthma

use of steroid for asthma

We identified 268 and 97 breakthrough cases among 80 584 and 8181 children vaccinated against varicella at HMOs A and B, respectively. Varicella breakthrough was not associated with asthma, inhaled steroids prescribed at any time, and oral steroids prescribed before vaccination. An increased risk of varicella breakthrough was found in the 3 months immediately after prescription for oral steroids at HMO A (adjusted relative risk [aRR]: ; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -) and HMO B (aRR: ; 95% CI: -), when varicella vaccine was given before 15 months of age at HMO A (aRR: ; 95% CI: -), and when varicella vaccination followed MMR vaccine within 28 days at HMO A (aRR: ; 95% CI: -).

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