Oral curcumin administration has been found to inhibit the development of chemically-induced cancer in animal models of oral (58, 59) , stomach (60, 61) , liver (62) , and colon (63-65) cancer. Apc Min/+ mice have a mutation in the Apc (adenomatous polyposis coli) gene similar to that in humans with familial adenomatous polyposis , a genetic condition characterized by the development of numerous colorectal adenomas ( polyps ) and a high risk for colorectal cancer . Oral curcumin administration has been found to inhibit the development of intestinal adenomas in Apc Min/+ mice (66, 67) . Despite promising results in animal studies, there is presently little evidence that high intakes of curcumin or turmeric are associated with decreased cancer risk in humans. A 30-day phase II clinical trial in 40 smokers with at least eight rectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF; precancerous lesions) found that the number of ACF was significantly lower with a daily supplementation with 4 g/day of curcumin compared to 2 g/day (68) . Several controlled clinical trials in humans designed to evaluate the effect of oral curcumin supplementation on precancerous colorectal lesions, such as adenomas, are under way (69) .