G-protein coupled receptors and steroid hormone receptors

The G α subunit will eventually hydrolyze the attached GTP to GDP by its inherent enzymatic activity, allowing it to re-associate with G βγ and starting a new cycle. A group of proteins called Regulator of G protein signalling (RGSs), act as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), are specific for G α subunits. These proteins accelerate the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP, thus terminating the transduced signal. In some cases, the effector itself may possess intrinsic GAP activity, which then can help deactivate the pathway. This is true in the case of phospholipase C -beta, which possesses GAP activity within its C-terminal region. This is an alternate form of regulation for the G α subunit. However, it should be noted that such G α GAPs do not have catalytic residues (specific amino acid sequences) to activate the G α protein. They work instead by lowering the required activation energy for the reaction to take place. [18]

The function of many ion channels is under dynamic control by coincident activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), particularly those coupled to the Gαs and Gαq family members. Such regulation is typically dependent on the subunit composition of the ionotropic receptor or channel as well as the GPCR subtype and the cell-specific panoply of signaling pathways available. Because GPCRs and ion channels are so highly represented among targets of . Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, functional cross-talk between these drug target classes is likely to underlie many therapeutic and adverse effects of marketed drugs. GPCRs engage a myriad of signaling pathways that involve protein kinases A and C (PKC) and, through PKC and interaction with β-arrestin, Src kinase, and hence the mitogen-activated-protein-kinase cascades. We focus here on the control of ionotropic glutamate receptor function by GPCR signaling because this form of regulation can influence the strength of synaptic plasticity. The amino acid residues phosphorylated by specific kinases have been securely identified in many ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptor subunits, but which of these sites are GPCR targets is less well known even when the kinase has been identified. N-methyl-d-aspartate, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, and heteromeric kainate receptors are all downstream targets of GPCR signaling pathways. The details of GPCR-iGlu receptor cross-talk should inform a better understanding of how synaptic transmission is regulated and lead to new therapeutic strategies for neuropsychiatric disorders.

Because Gα also has slow GTP→GDP hydrolysis capability, the inactive form of the α-subunit (Gα-GDP) is eventually regenerated, thus allowing reassociation with a Gβγ dimer to form the "resting" G-protein, which can again bind to a GPCR and await activation. The rate of GTP hydrolysis is often accelerated due to the actions of another family of allosteric modulating proteins called Regulators of G-protein Signaling , or RGS proteins, which are a type of GTPase-Activating Protein , or GAP. In fact, many of the primary effector proteins (., adenylate cyclases ) that become activated/inactivated upon interaction with Gα-GTP also have GAP activity. Thus, even at this early stage in the process, GPCR-initiated signaling has the capacity for self-termination.

G-protein coupled receptors and steroid hormone receptors

g-protein coupled receptors and steroid hormone receptors

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