Sickle cell anemia is an inherited, chronic disease in which the red blood cells, normally disc-shaped, become crescent shape. As a result, they function abnormally and cause increase viscosity of the blood giving rise to recurrent painful episodes. Sickle cell anemia is caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin (hemoglobin S). It is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; that is, it occurs in someone who has inherited hemoglobin S from both parents. Due to the viscosity of the red blood cells as they change shape during a crisis, the child needs to increase fluid intake to help prevent dehydration.
The only treatment for Hirschsprung disease is surgery. Doctors and surgeons
treat newborns with a pull-through procedure in which the surgeon removes the
part of the large intestine that is missing nerves
and connects it to the healthy part of the anus. Toddlers and children
require ostomy surgery, in which part of the intestine is brought through the
abdominal wall so that feces can leave the body without passing through the
anus. The opening in the abdominal wall is called a stoma, and a removable
external pouch is attached to it.
Complications can occur with either type of surgery, and may include: