Adrenal insufficiency versus steroid withdrawal

Causes of primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease)
Causes of secondary and tertiary adrenal insufficiency in adults
Clinical manifestations of adrenal insufficiency in adults
Diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in adults
Evaluation of the response to ACTH in adrenal insufficiency
Hyponatremia and hyperkalemia in adrenal insufficiency
Pathogenesis of autoimmune adrenal insufficiency
Treatment of adrenal insufficiency in adults
Treatment of adrenal insufficiency in children

Catecholamines are produced in chromaffin cells in the medulla of the adrenal gland, from tyrosine , a non-essential amino acid derived from food or produced from phenylalanine in the liver. The enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase converts tyrosine to L-DOPA in the first step of catecholamine synthesis. L-DOPA is then converted to dopamine before it can be turned into noradrenaline. In the cytosol , noradrenaline is converted to epinephrine by the enzyme phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and stored in granules. Glucocorticoids produced in the adrenal cortex stimulate the synthesis of catecholamines by increasing the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and PNMT. [4] [13]

Adrenal insufficiency versus steroid withdrawal

adrenal insufficiency versus steroid withdrawal

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